By Allen H. Burdick
Two inexpensive jack-mounted products from Benchmark Media Systems can be assembled into a very powerful test set we call The Audio MicroScope™. The Audio MicroScope™ is a tool to be used in setting up analog audio systems. Because of its extremely high gain capability, over 85 dB, it is particularly useful in hunting down signal interface problems, such as hum and buzz from RF interference, magnetic induction, and ground loops.
The first device in the test set is the MP-3, a single channel microphone preamplifier. The MP-3 is mounted on an XLR type jack and has a balanced input, variable gain from 26 to 65 dB, and a balanced output. It also has the ability to feed phantom power (with an external source of +48 V required) to a microphone. This can be useful even in this test set, particularly when testing microphone input cables. The performance of the MP-3 is excellent, with a 1 dB noise figure, a 2 kHz THD at A=40 dB of 0.005% and a bandwidth of greater than 200 kHz.
The second device used is the HPA-2. The HPA-2 is a high quality stereo headphone amplifier that has approximately 300 mA of very clean output capability per channel and is mounted on a 1/4" TRS jack. The HPA-2 is a improved headphone amplifier over the original HPA-1). Although the HPA-2 is a stereo device, in this application we will be using it as a dual channel mono amp. That is, both inputs to the HPA-2 will be connected to one half of the balanced output of the second product, the MP-3 microphone preamplifier.
Figure 1. MP-3 to HPA-2 Interconnect.
Mount an MP-3, an HPA-2, in a project box along with a DPDT switch for power, and four 9 V batteries or a PS-1. Be sure to include a switch for the +48 V if it is used. The Audio Microscope™ will allow you to "look" at your system and find minute problems.
To avoid damaging your hearing, since there is over 85 dB of gain available, you must be careful to have all normal audio fully removed from the path under test. Start with low gain and move cautiously upward as you begin the cleanup of the system.
Start at the beginning of the audio chain and listen to the microphone cable that feeds your console! Back terminate the wire, that is, replace the microphone with a 150 ohm carbon film or preferably a metal film resistor. Turn on phantom power, if available. Then turn up the gain and listen while you or someone else flexes the cable. If the cable is high quality, you will hear relatively little noise, if not, be prepared for a surprise. Next listen to the output of the first piece of equipment. It should be clean and free from hum. Move to the output of the next piece of equipment. Is the interconnect between the first two pieces of equipment free from mains-related hum and buzz? If not, work with the wiring and ground system, until they are. This, of course, assumes that the equipment by itself is clean, not always a safe assumption. Continue through the chain until the output of the final stage is just what you wanted.
You will find that the "Audio Microscope™" is one of the most valuable tools in your kit. In addition to using it with clip leads for direct connections, when used with a telephone pickup coil, Radio Shack Part # 44-533 it is most useful for doing a Magnetic Field survey of your equipment space. This piece of test equipment should be used hand in hand with the "A Clean Audio Installation Guide™" by Allen Burdick, a Benchmark Media Systems application note.
Myth - "Damping Factor Isn't Much of a Factor"
Myth - "A Damping Factor of 10 is High Enough"
Myth - "All Amplifiers Have a High-Enough Damping Factor"
These myths seem to trace back to a well-know paper written by Dick Pierce. His analysis shows that a damping factor of 10 is virtually indistinguishable from a damping factor of 10,000 when it comes to damping the motion of a loudspeaker cone. This analysis has been examined and repeated in many more recent articles, such as a well-written post on Audiofrog.com by Andy Wehmeyer. Articles such as these are often cited as evidence that amplifier damping factor doesn't matter. The mathematical analyses are correct, but the conclusions are incomplete and misleading!
How fast things can change!
It is March 23, 2020 and we are currently battling the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic.
This application note will be a departure from normal. I will make a few observations about the current situation and then look at the nuts and bolts of how we reconstructed our operations in less than 48 hours. Benchmark is 100% operational, but nothing looks the same as it did last week.
- John Siau
As an engineer I like to use "rules of thumb" to make quick estimates that help to explain the physical world around me.
These rules of thumb are easy-to-remember approximations that eliminate the need for complicated and needlessly precise calculations.
If you feel discombobulated by the complexities of high school physics, there is hope! I encourage you to step back and take a fresh approach.
If you learn a few simple rules of thumb, you can unravel mysteries of the physical world, amaze your friends, and yourself.
In this paper I will present 15 simple rules that I find useful when working with music and audio.
- John Siau