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  • Box-to-Box Phase Accuracy of Benchmark DAC1 and DAC2 Converters

    by John Siau October 03, 2014 3 min read

    Box-to-Box Phase Accuracy of Benchmark DAC1 and DAC2 Converters

    Phase Accuracy in an Asynchronous Environment


    Benchmark DAC2 HGC Silver 1
    Benchmark DAC2 HGC Silver 2


    Two or more Benchmark DAC1 or DAC2 converters can be used together in phase-coherent multichannel audio systems even though their internal clocks are not synchronized. This seems to defy logic, but an examination of the system details reveals why this is possible.


    Benchmark D/A Converters can be Used Together in Phase-Coherent Systems

    Our bench tests show that if identical signals are fed to two separate DAC1 boxes, the outputs will be precisely in phase with each other, at sample rates up to about 110 kHz. Below this sample rate, the L to R differential phase response of a single DAC1 is almost identical to the differential phase between the outputs of two separate DAC1 boxes.

    Similar tests show that two or more DAC2 converters can be used to create phase-coherent multi channel systems at any sample rate. Please note that the time delay through a DAC1 is not the same as a DAC2. This means that the two generations of Benchmark D/A converters should not be mixed when phase-coherence is required.

    Benchmark converters achieve nearly perfect box-to-box phase matching without using a separate clock input. This note discusses some of the technical details that contribute to this box-to-box phase matching.

    ASRC System in the DAC1

    The DAC1 uses an AD1896 asynchronous sample rate converter (ASRC) to isolate the incoming digital audio clock from a free-running low-jitter conversion clock. Every DAC1 has its own free-running master clock. These free-running clocks do not need to be synchronized in order to have a predictable delay through the system. The DAC1 uses the AD1896 to upconvert the audio to a sample rate of about 111 kHz. When upconverting, the AD1896 has a fixed delay that is a function of the input sample rate only. The phase relationship between the input and outputs clock will not change the delay through the SRC. The SRC filter coefficients are always selected to maintain a constant delay from the average phase of the input clock signal. The averaging function prevents jitter artifacts, and is one of 3 significant advantages provided by an upsampling SRC topology.

    In a multi-channel system, the digital signals feeding multiple DAC1 converters are all derived from the same clock, and are in phase. However, the internal conversion clocks (inside the DAC1 boxes) are all running independently and yet phase accuracy is maintained (see the plots in the manual). The phase accuracy between two DAC1 boxes is only a function of the frequency matching of the two independent fixed-frequency conversion oscillators. These are crystal oscillators and are actually much more closely matched than they need to be. The clock frequencies are matched to +/- about 50 PPM (+/- 0.005%), and if we do the math, the worst-case miss-match will produce a phase error of only +/- 0.004 degrees at 20 kHz! The analog circuits (and the measurement equipment) have orders of magnitude more phase error than the SRC & D/A conversion systems in the DAC1!

    DAC1 Converters can be used in Multichannel Systems at Sample Rates up to 100 kHz

    Multiple DAC1 boxes are phase accurate up to an input frequency of 110 kHz. We do not claim phase accuracy between DAC1 boxes running at 176.4 or 192 kHz.

    The Math

    The delay on the 110 kHz side of the SRC is 1.01 ms +/- 50 ppm. The +/- 50 ppm variation is due to the +/- 50 ppm variation in the oscillator used for the 110 kHz D/A conversion clock.

    50 ppm is 0.00005

    0.00005*1.01 ms = 50.5 ns

    50.5 ns is equivalent to moving the position of a microphone by 0.00005 feet, and is equivalent to the electrical delay through a 25 foot cable.

    At 20 kHz, +/- 50.5 ns is:

    50.5E-9*20000*360=0.36 degrees (at 20 kHz)

    This +/- 0.36 degree variation is insignificant, even when the channels are summed.

    The amplitude error after summing is: 20*Log((cos(0.36*2)+cos(0))/2)=-0.00035 dB at 20 kHz

    What about comb filtering? The first null in the comb filter will occur no lower than: 1/(2*50.5 ns/2)= 19.8 MHz

    The bandwidth of 96 kHz digital audio is limited to 48 kHz, so a null at 19.8 MHz is of no consequence.

    DAC2 Converters can be used at any Sample Rate in a Multichannel System

    The DAC2 system is also asynchronous, but due to improved technology, it maintains box-to-box phase accuracy at all input sample rates.


    Also in Audio Application Notes

    Closeup of Plasma Tweeter

    Making Sound with Plasma - Hill Plasmatronics Tweeter

    by Benchmark Media Systems June 06, 2023 2 min read

    At the 2023 AXPONA show in Chicago, I had the opportunity to see and hear the Hill Plasmatronics tweeter. I also had the great pleasure of meeting Dr. Alan Hill, the physicist who invented this unique device.

    The plasma driver has no moving parts and no diaphragm. Sound is emitted directly from the thermal expansion and contraction of an electrically sustained plasma. The plasma is generated within a stream of helium gas. In the demonstration, there was a large helium tank on the floor with a sufficient supply for several hours of listening.

    Hill Plasmatronics Tweeter Demonstration - AXPONA 2023
    While a tank of helium, tubing, high voltage power supplies, and the smell of smoke may not be appropriate for every living room, this was absolutely the best thing I experienced at the show!
    - John Siau
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    Benchmark AHB2 Power Amplifier

    ChatGPT Reviews the AHB2 and Includes Listening Impressions!

    by John Siau June 02, 2023 2 min read

    What happens when you ask ChatGPT to write a review?

    I asked ChatGPT to review the Benchmark AHB2, and I was shocked at the results!

    It turns out that ChatGPT wrote a review by gleaning information from the many publicly available reviews of the AHB2. I recognized phases and sequences of words that had appeared in prior reviews, and yet the text was new, original, and well written. The ChatGPT review seemed to summarize the collective impressions of the reviewers without directly quoting any particular reviewer.

    It should be possible to ask ChatGPT to write a review on any well-known product and the result will be an AI-generated review that reflects the collective opinions of many human reviewers.

    These AI-generated reviews may be more useful than traditional search results!

    If I am not mistaken, ChatGPT seems to have golden ears!

    Here is my dialog with ChatGPT:

    John Siau PFP

    John Siau:

    Write a review of the Benchmark AHB2 complete with listening impressions.

    chatGPT logo


    Title: Unleashing Sonic Purity: A Review of the Benchmark AHB2 Amplifier

    Introduction: The Benchmark AHB2 amplifier has gained a reputation for its exceptional audio performance and unwavering dedication to sonic purity. In this review, we delve into the heart of this powerhouse amplifier, exploring its features, design, and most importantly, the listening impressions it evokes...

    Read Full Post
    ChatGPT Logo

    ChatGPT and John Siau Discuss Star-Quad Cables

    by Benchmark Media Systems May 30, 2023 7 min read

    Today, Benchmark's John Siau and OpenAI's ChatGPT had a conversation about star-quad cables. It turns out that ChatGPT got quite a few things wrong, but learned quickly when these errors were pointed out by John Siau.

    ChatGPT is quick to recognize mistakes, and quick to provide detailed corrections. In each of the first few corrections, additional errors were made. As each of these were pointed out, ChatGPT began to provide accurate information.

    Here is my conversation with ChatGPT: 

    John Siau PFP

    John Siau:

    How do star-quad cables reject interference?

    ChatGPT logo


    Star-quad cables are designed to provide improved rejection of ...

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