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  • AHB2 Power Amplifier Black

    Power Amplifier

  • HPA4 Headphone Amplifier Silver

    Headphone Amplifier

  • LA4 Line Amplifier Silver

    Line Amplifier

  • Digital to Analog Converters

  • How Should I Buy an Audio System?

    Cadillac CTS

    Make your own choice!

    Buying an audio product is much like buying a car. There are two distinct types of audio products. Some audio products are designed to be transparent while others are designed to provide a euphonic experience. These types are as different as a Porsche and a Cadillac. There is not a right and wrong type of car. Likewise there is not a right and wrong type of audio product. The choice belongs to the user, but the user must be fully aware of the differences before they buy.

    Porsche 911 Carrera 4S

    2013 Porsche 911 Carrera 4S (991) (9626546987)

    Cadillac CTS

    Cadillac CTS

    User Experience

    The Porsche and the Cadillac are both luxury cars, but they provide a completely different driving experience. They are designed to achieve entirely different goals. The Porsche is designed to connect the driver to the road and maximize performance. The Porsche driver will want to avoid bumpy roads and enjoy the exhilaration of high speed on smooth, dry pavement. The Cadillac is designed to isolate the driver from the road and maximize comfort. The Cadillac driver does not want to feel bumps; all roads should feel comfortable. Drivers must choose which experience they prefer.

    Transparent audio products are like the Porsche. They are designed to connect the listener directly to the recording. The listener can expect a raw and detailed rendition of the recording. An excellent recording will be exhilarating, but the bumps and potholes in a poor recording will be fully exposed. In contrast, a euphonic system may be able to make most recordings relaxing and enjoyable. In such a system, the occasional bump and pothole may go unnoticed. The owner of a euphonic system may be able to enjoy recordings that are harsh or unpleasant on a transparent system. But the euphonic system may fail to deliver the full exhilaration of a spectacular recording. An audio enthusiast must choose which experience they prefer.

    User Expectations

    The Porsche driver expects to hear the engine, feel the road, shift the gears, and participate in every aspect of the driving experience. The Cadillac driver expects a quiet and relaxed driving experience where the car takes care of as many mundane tasks as possible. The cabin is quiet, gears are shifted imperceptibly and automatically, cruise control is engaged and steering is effortless. Lights, wipers, climate control, and parallel parking are all automated. The car should almost drive itself.

    Some listeners may want to be able to hear the exact sonic signature of a musical instrument, and may want to hear the full impact of the percussion through a transparent system. In contrast, some listeners may want to hear a more relaxed presentation that helps them unwind from the stresses of the day.


    The Porsche can be measured objectively in terms of horsepower, acceleration, top speed, cornering and stopping distance. In contrast, the Cadillac should be evaluated subjectively in terms of comfort and styling. The Cadillac will measure "poorly" in relation to the objective benchmarks that we set for sports cars, but this does not indicate that there is any deficiency in the Cadillac. The measurements only confirm our suspicion that the Cadillac is not a sports car. In most cases, it is impossible to compare a Porsche to a Cadillac on the basis of objective measurements. Nevertheless, we can compare the Porsche to other sports cars on the basis of measurements. Porsche publishes many objective measurements while Cadillac only publishes a few.

    Transparent audio systems can be measured objectively in terms of frequency response, distortion, noise, and time-base errors. In contrast, a euphonic system must be evaluated subjectively in terms of its sonic character and musicality. By definition, the euphonic system will measure "poorly" in terms of the objective benchmarks that we set for transparent systems, but this does not indicate that there is any deficiency in the euphonic system. The measurements only confirm our suspicion that the euphonic system is not transparent. In most cases it is impossible to compare a transparent system to a euphonic system on the basis of objective measurements. Nevertheless, we can compare two transparent systems on the basis of measurements. Manufacturers of transparent audio systems tend to publish many specifications while manufacturers of euphonic systems publish very few.


    Measurements are the benchmarks that quantify the transparency of an audio product. As our name implies, Benchmark Media Systems is dedicated to the design and manufacture of transparent audio products. We strive to achieve the highest benchmarks in the industry. When we introduce a new product, it is designed to measure better than any competing product. Benchmark does not build euphonic audio products and we will never build euphonic audio products under the Benchmark name. This does not mean that we look down our noses at euphonic products as they have a legitimate role in hi-fi systems.

    Euphonic products are usually not appropriate for studio monitoring, but they do play an important role in the recording process. Many professional audio products are designed to create specific sonic effects, tonal changes, distortion, noise, and even time-base errors. Measurements will show that these special euphonic tools are not transparent (but we already knew that!). Measurements should only be used to evaluate products that are designed to be transparent.

    Mix and Match?

    What happens if I take the wheels off my Cadillac and put them on my Porsche? What happens if I put the Porsche exhaust system into my Cadillac? Chances are, the mixed-up cars will fail to meet my expectations. Nevertheless, there are cars that target a space between the Porsche and the Cadillac.

    The BMW is marketed as a luxury sports car. It combines many of the performance characteristics of the Porsche with many of the comforts of the Cadillac. It may not be as fast as the Porsche or as comfortable as the Cadillac, but it provides a well-engineered middle ground. All of the parts on a BMW are designed to work in harmony. You cannot create a BMW by randomly mixing a Porsche with a Cadillac.

    Likewise, a random mix of transparent and euphonic audio products may not deliver the desired result. Any mixing of product types needs to be well thought out. The safest approach is to purchase the entire system from one manufacturer. In most cases, the manufacturer has designed the components to play well together. If you choose to mix components from various manufacturers, here are some practical suggestions:

    Creating a Euphonic System

    There are many paths to a euphonic system: If one euphonic component is inserted into an otherwise transparent audio chain, the system will take on the euphonic character of that one component in a predictable manner. If two or more euphonic components are placed in the chain, the results may be unpredictable. Unless these euphonic components are designed to work together, the sound may no longer be "euphonic", and it may become difficult to enjoy the system. It is always possible to get too much of a good thing, but it is also possible to produce something that sounds really bad. You may want to try before you buy if you intend to mix euphonic components. The decision must be subjective.

    If you have one euphonic component that you really like, you may want to compliment it with transparent components. The transparent components will faithfully deliver the character of the euphonic component. Many Benchmark customers enjoy our products in combination with one euphonic component.

    In the studio, engineers may use transparent microphone preamplifiers, A/D converters and D/A converters in order to capture the euphonic character of their favorite microphones. In other cases, it may be the microphone preamplifier that provides the character. In the studio, the engineer will often combine many euphonic components in creative ways in order to create a desired sound. The sounds created in the studio will be altered when played through a euphonic playback system, but many listeners enjoy this effect.

    Creating a Transparent System

    There is only one path to a transparent system: all components must be transparent. Transparency is lost if any component in the audio chain is not transparent. For example, the transparency of a Benchmark DAC2 cannot be appreciated if the power amplifier is not transparent. Many of our customers enjoy the experience of a highly transparent audio system. Many are enjoying the combination of a DAC2 directly connected to an AHB2. If the goal is to create a transparent system, all components should be selected based upon their measured performance. In many ways, this is the easiest type of system to configure. The decisions can be objective.

    The transparent system will match the transparent studio monitoring systems that were used to mix and master your favorite recordings. Your listening experience will closely match what the engineers and musicians heard in the studio.

    Make your choice

    Drive a Porsche, ride in a Cadillac, and see which you like. Listen to a transparent system, and sample the many different flavors of euphonic systems. Learn what you like, and understand what you are buying.

    Get Some Help

    Our staff is always willing to answer your questions in order to help you with this process. We can't help you with your next car purchase, but we can help you with your audio gear.

    If you live in the USA, we offer a 30-day in-home/in-studio trial. Many of our dealers also offer demos and trials, but they set their own policies.

    One more thing ...

    We don't believe your audio system needs to cost as much as your new car!

    Benchmark DAC2 HGC - Digital to Analog Converter
    Benchmark AHB2 Power Amplifier

    Also in Audio Application Notes

    Closeup of Plasma Tweeter

    Making Sound with Plasma - Hill Plasmatronics Tweeter

    by John Siau June 06, 2023 2 min read

    At the 2023 AXPONA show in Chicago, I had the opportunity to see and hear the Hill Plasmatronics tweeter. I also had the great pleasure of meeting Dr. Alan Hill, the physicist who invented this unique device.

    The plasma driver has no moving parts and no diaphragm. Sound is emitted directly from the thermal expansion and contraction of an electrically sustained plasma. The plasma is generated within a stream of helium gas. In the demonstration, there was a large helium tank on the floor with a sufficient supply for several hours of listening.

    Hill Plasmatronics Tweeter Demonstration - AXPONA 2023

    While a tank of helium, tubing, high voltage power supplies, and the smell of smoke may not be appropriate for every living room, this was absolutely the best thing I experienced at the show!

    - John Siau

    Read Full Post
    Benchmark AHB2 Power Amplifier

    Audio Calculators

    by John Siau June 04, 2023 1 min read

    We have added an "Audio Calculators" section to our webpage. Click "Calculators" on the top menu to see more like these:

    THD % to dB Converter
    THD dB to % Converter
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    Benchmark AHB2 Power Amplifier

    System Performance Calculations

    by John Siau June 03, 2023 13 min read

    If an audio system is composed of multiple components, we may have detailed specifications for each component, but we will not know the performance of the combined system without doing some calculations. You may have questions such as these:

    • Will my audio system produce audible noise?
    • Will my audio system produce audible distortion?
    • How will my audio components work together as a system?
    • How loud will my audio system play?

    Use Benchmark's online audio calculators to find answers!

    For example, if we know the output power of an amplifier, as well as the sensitivity and impedance of our loudspeakers, we can calculate the maximum sound pressure level that our system can produce.

    dB SPL (2.83 V,1 M)
    dB SPL

    This application note provides interactive examples that help to answer the questions listed above.

    Read Full Post