Intersample Overs in CD Recordings

Intersample Overs in CD Recordings

by John Siau February 10, 2017

Intersample Overs are a Common Occurrence in CD Recordings

We have frequently used Steely Dan's Gaslighting Abbie from Two Against Nature in our listening tests. This is a spectacular CD recording with lots of dynamics and a low noise floor. Nevertheless, in a little over 5 minutes, this track has 559 intersample overs on the left track and 570 on the right track for a total of 1129. This means that there are about 3.7 intersample overs per second. The highest intersample over measures +0.8 dBFS. The track itself is not clipped, the 44.1 kHz sampling has simply captured peaks that exceed 0 dBFS. The following image shows the track with the intersample overs highlighted in red:

This track can be played cleanly by the Benchmark DAC2 and DAC3 converters. These converters accurately render the intersample peaks that were captured in the recording process. In contrast, conventional converters will clip each of the peaks highlighted in red. In this track the peaks coincide with hits to the snare drum. Converters that clip these peaks add a false brightness to the snare drum and alter its sound.

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A Look Inside the New ES9028PRO Converter Chip and the New DAC3

A Look Inside the New ES9028PRO Converter Chip and the New DAC3

by John Siau November 14, 2016

ES9028PRO D/A Converter Chip - Block Diagram and Test Report

This application note examines the differences between the ES9018 and the new ES9028PRO. It also compares the Benchmark DAC2 and DAC3 to demonstrate the performance improvements that can be achieved in a commercial product. It has been a little over 7 years since ESS Technology introduced the revolutionary ES9018 audio D/A converter chip. This converter delivered a major improvement in audio conversion and, for 7 years, it has held its position as the highest performing audio D/A converter chip. But a new D/A chip has now claimed this top position. Curiously the successor did not come from a competing company; it came from ESS. On October 19, 2016, ESS Technology announced the all-new ES9028PRO 32-bit audio D/A converter. In our opinion, ESS is now two steps ahead of the competition!

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Calculating the Performance of an Amplifier/Speaker Combination

Calculating the Performance of an Amplifier/Speaker Combination

by John Siau November 01, 2016

Example 1 - PMC IB2S

In this application note we calculate the maximum output level and noise level produced by an amplifier/loudspeaker combination. Use this example for calculating the performance of your system.

At the 141st AES conference we demonstrated two Benchmark AHB2 monoblock power amplifiers driving a pair of 4-Ohm PMC IB2S studio monitors. These monitor are also available the PMC IB2SE hi-fi version.

In bridged mono, the AHB2 can deliver over 518 watts into each of these 4-Ohm speakers. This is a perfect match to PMC's 500 watt recommendation. The AHB2 easily provides the power, the output current, and the damping required by these low-impedance speakers.

"I am very impressed with the clarity and accuracy of these outstanding professional monitors. The Benchmark AHB2 and PMC IB2S are an absolutely killer combination!" - John Siau, VP, Benchmark Media Systems, Inc.

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Audio Myth - Balanced Headphone Amplifiers are Better

Audio Myth - Balanced Headphone Amplifiers are Better

by John Siau September 15, 2016

THIS MYTH GOES SOMETHING LIKE THIS:

"Balanced headphone amplifiers are better."

"If balanced line-level connections work well, balanced headphone outputs should also work well."

We disagree!

Benchmark does not offer balanced headphone outputs on any of its products. The reason for this is that a voltage-balanced interface serves no useful purpose when driving headphones. The truth is that a conventional single-ended headphone drive is technically superior to a balanced drive. This paper explains why single-ended headphone amplifiers are inherently more transparent than balanced headphone amplifiers.

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Inside the DAC2 - Part 3 - Power Supplies

Inside the DAC2 - Part 3 - Power Supplies

by John Siau July 13, 2016

The Benchmark DAC2 is an audio digital-to-analog converter. This application note explains the power supply configuration inside Benchmark'sDAC2 D/A converter. Inpart 1 of this series we discussed the importance of the analog section of an audio converter. In part 2 we discussed the unique high-headroom digital processing chain inside the DAC2. The analog and digital systems each contribute toward Benchmark's overall goal of transparent musical reproduction, but this goal can only be reached when these systems are supported by a well-designed power supply system. In many cases, classic solutions (linear power supplies, line-frequency transformers, and large banks of capacitors) fail to deliver adequate performance. The DAC2 takes a radically different approach.

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Inside the DAC2 - Part 2 - Digital Processing

Inside the DAC2 - Part 2 - Digital Processing

by John Siau June 24, 2016

The Benchmark DAC2 is an audio digital-to-analog converter. This application note explains the proprietary digital processing inside Benchmark's DAC2 D/A converter. In part 1 of this series we made the case that 90% of the components in an audio converter are analog, and that about 90% of the "magic" happens in the analog processing. Nevertheless the 10% that is digital still makes an audible contribution to the sound of an audio D/A converter. This is especially true when the digital processing is complemented by a very pure and clean analog section. With a highly transparent analog section, some of the subtleties of the digital processing can become apparent.

Take a tour of the digital processing chain in the DAC2.

 

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Inside the DAC2 - Part 1 - Analog Processing

Inside the DAC2 - Part 1 - Analog Processing

by John Siau June 04, 2016

The DAC2 is an audio digital-to-analog converter. Most people focus on the word "digital" and assume that all of the "magic" happens in the digital processing, but nothing could be further from the truth! A look inside most audio converters would show that about 90% of the components are analog!

This application note takes a look at the analog processing in Benchmark's DAC2 D/A converter.

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The PLL in your D/A Can Taint A/B Listening Tests!

The PLL in your D/A Can Taint A/B Listening Tests!

by John Siau June 03, 2016

A/B and A/B/X listening tests are important methods of comparing two audio sources or two audio components. In the studio an engineer may want to switch an effect or EQ setting on and off to decide if it contributes positively to a mix. Hi-Fi enthusiasts may wish to compare audio components, signal sources and interconnects. The DAC1 and DAC2 converters have input selector switches that allow fast and easy switching between signal sources. Before attempting to conduct these tests, it is important to understand how these converters and their switches work. A/B tests using the DAC1 input selector can be very misleading. In contrast, A/B testing using the input selector on the DAC2 will produce reliable results. This application note provides guidance for conducting reliable A/B or A/B/X listening tests with your D/A converter.

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Benchmark Bi-Directional 12 Volt Trigger - Technical Details

Benchmark Bi-Directional 12 Volt Trigger - Technical Details

by John Siau April 20, 2016

12 Volt Trigger

Link your audio products together with trigger cables

Benchmark has created a bi-directional 12 Volt trigger interface that is compatible with almost every trigger input and output. This interface can be used to connect Benchmark products together so that they will power up and down in a sequenced fashion. This same interface can be connected to the trigger inputs and outputs on other brands of audio products. This application note describes some typical configurations and it includes the full technical details of the Benchmark bi-directional trigger system.

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How Should I Buy an Audio System?

How Should I Buy an Audio System?

by John Siau February 26, 2016

Two Distinct Types of Audio Products - Understand the Difference Before You Buy!

2013 Porsche 911 Carrera 4S (991) (9626546987)

Make your own choice!

"Buying an audio product is much like buying a car"

There are two distinct types of audio products. Some audio products are designed to be transparent while others are designed to provide a euphonic experience. These types are as different as a Porsche and a Cadillac.

There is not a right and wrong type of car. Likewise there is not a right and wrong type of audio product. The choice belongs to the user, but the user must be fully aware of the differences before they buy.

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Benchmark DAC2 vs. DAC1 - Side-by-Side Measurements

Benchmark DAC2 vs. DAC1 - Side-by-Side Measurements

by John Siau August 13, 2015

There was a 10-year time span between the introduction of the Benchmark DAC1 and DAC2 audio D/A converters. The DAC1 defined the state of the art when it was introduced in 2002. Thirteen years later, Enjoy the Music.com selected the DAC1 as one of the 20 most significant digital audio products from the past 20 years. Today the DAC2 defines the state of the art in audio D/A conversion. John Atkinson said that the "DAC2 offered one of the highest resolutions I have measured". Both products set performance benchmarks when they were introduced. In a sense, they provide snapshots of technological progress.

This paper shows high-precision side-by-side measurements of the DAC1 and DAC2 converters. These measurements show how technology has improved, and they show that there may be two or three audible differences between these two products.

Travel through 10 years of audio technology, learn the significance of audio measurements, and see what has improved in our quest for transparent audio reproduction.

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Benchmark DAC2 vs. DAC1 - Is There an Audible Difference?

Benchmark DAC2 vs. DAC1 - Is There an Audible Difference?

by John Siau August 06, 2015

Benchmark introduced the DAC1 in 2002 and it quickly became the best-selling 2-channel professional D/A converter. To this day, the DAC1 is a standard fixture in many recording studios, and it is also a central component in many high-end hi-fi systems. In August of 2015, Enjoy the Music.com selected the DAC1 as one of the20 most significant digital audio products from the past 20 years.

It is easy to show that the DAC2 measures better than the DAC1 in almost every way. From a marketing perspective it would be tempting to claim that all of these measured differences make audible improvements, but this just isn't the case.

One reviewer, Gary Galo, recently had the opportunity to hear a DAC1 and DAC2 side-by-side. He noted some audible differences and we agree with his conclusions. We have had a great deal of experience listening to these converters side-by-side in our own listening room and we are familiar with some subtle differences.

This paper examines the subtle audible differences between the DAC1 and the DAC2. It also includes measurements that may help to explain these differences.

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Creating a High-Resolution 5.1 Music Server

Creating a High-Resolution 5.1 Music Server

by John Siau April 21, 2015

Blu-ray disks often contain high-resolution audio formats. Dolby TrueHD and DTS-HD are two Blu-ray audio encoding formats that support lossless high-resolution audio. These systems support up to 8 channels of 24-bit, 96kHz audio, or up to 6 channels of 24-bit 192 kHz audio.

Blu-ray disks may seem like an ideal solution for the distribution of high-resolution audio, but there are problems. It is not easy to gain access to the high-resolution audio stored on these disks.

Our solution was to set up a PC-based music (and video) server. We used a Blu-ray equipped PC running Windows 7 and the JRiver MediaCenter software.

This application note provides a guide for setting up a music server that can play the lossless high-resolution audio tracks found on DVD and Blu-ray disks.

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High-Resolution Audio - Bit Depth

High-Resolution Audio - Bit Depth

by John Siau February 24, 2015

Bit Depth

We now have 16-bit CDs and 24-bit high-resolution recordings available to us. What are the advantages of a24-bitword length? Are 24-bit recordings better? How many bits do we really need?

Bit depth (also known as word length) indicates how many bits are used to represent each sample in a digital sampling system. Each sample is a snapshot of a signal or voltage at an instant in time. The CD uses 16 bits to represent the voltage of an audio waveform at each instant in time. Other digital audio systems use different bit depths ranging from 1 to 64 bits. It is important to understand the relationship between bit depth and audio quality. The bit depth sets ...

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The Mac Mini as a High-Resolution Audio Server

The Mac Mini as a High-Resolution Audio Server

by Benchmark Media Systems June 27, 2014

A "Mini" Server for High-Resolution Audio

Mastering and Recording Engineer, Mark Waldrep (A.K.A. Dr. AIX) recently published an excellent application note titled "My First Server". This is a step-by-step guide for setting up a High-Resolution Audio (HRA) server. He chose a Mac Mini, a Benchmark DAC2 HGC, and the highly-acclaimed Amarra playback software to bring studio-quality playback to his own living room.

With his simple guide, you can join Mark, and enjoy mastering-quality High-Resolution Audio in your room.

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